Table 1

Animal species with Holarctic ranges showing distinct phylogeographic pattern, with some indication of their possible divergence times, glacial refugia and genetic signals of population history. CA = Circumarctic, HA = High Arctic. PA = Palearctic, NA = Nearctic, BE = Beringia, GL = Greenland, NT = North Temperate.

Species Range

Phylogenetic Divergence (Myr)

Likely Refugia

(fossil evidence *)

Genetic signals of range changes

Authors & Reference


Larus argentatus spp

Herring gull complex

CA HA

(+EurAsia Lakes)

9 clades

<0.5%

(0.1–0.3)

Atlantic

Aralo-Caspian

Allopatric fragmentation

Bimodal mismatch

Recent expansions

Hybridizations

Liebers et al [96]

Rangifer tarandus

tundra reindeer

CA HA

7 clades

1–2%

(0.1–0.3)

Beringia-Asia *

W EurAsia*

N America

150 kyr expand

15 kyr expand

Ragged mismatch

Gravlund et al [97]

Flagstad & Roed [98]

Lemmus ssp

true lemmings HA PA

NA

4 clades

3.8–7.9%

(0.5–1.0)

Beringia

E Asia

Siberia*

N America*

Expand

Few haplotypes

Few haplotypes

Expand

Fedorov et al [99]

Dichrostonyx ssp

collared lemmings HA

PA NA GL

6 clades

1–7%

(0.1–1.0)

Beringia*

Arctic Islands

E Asia

C&W Siberia*

Not to east

Expand

Low diversity

Low diversity

Fedorov & Stenseth [100]

Microtus oeconomus

root/tundra vole

HA PA BE

4 clades

2.0–3.5%

(0.2–0.6)

Beringia

S Urals*

Caucasus

C Europe*

Not far

Few haplotypes

N expansion

N expansion

Brunhoff et al [101]

Microtus agrestis

field vole

not HA, PA

3 clades

0.5–5.2%

(0.1–0.6)

S Urals*

Carpathians*

Iberia

Across Asia

N&W expansion

Not far

Jaarola & Searle [102]

Lagopus mutus

rock ptarmigan

CA HA

7 clades

0.21–1.12%

(0.05–0.1)

Multiple, eg Greenland – Beringia/Aleuts

Siberia

Several recent Expansions

Only 4% diversity within lineages

Holder et al [103, 104]

Calidris alpina

Dunlin (migrant)

CA

5 clades

1.1–3.3%

(0.1–0.3)

W Africa

Arabia

SE Asia

C America

W EurAsia

Siberia

Beringia

Canada

Wennerberg [105]

Wenink et al [106]

Daphnia pulex

Waterflea (clonal)

CA HA

7 clades

0.5–3%

(0.2–1.5)

Periglacial

Some more local clones

Mixing, but some N Amer/Eurasian difference

Weider et al [107]

Troglodytes troglodytes

Winter wren

NT not HA

EurAsia BE N Amer

6 clades

3.0–8.9%

(0.5–1.6)

NW Amer

NE Amer

NE Asia

C Asia, S Europe

Series of glacial vicariances

Recent expansions

Drovetski et al [38]

Cleithrionomys rutilus/glareolus/gapperi

red-backed voles

HA PA NA BE

12 clades

1–10%

(0.1–1.8)

C Europe*

E Asia*

Beringia

N Amer*

Several colonizations of N Amer across Beringia from Asia

Cook et al [37]


Hewitt Frontiers in Zoology 2004 1:4   doi:10.1186/1742-9994-1-4

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