Table 2

Larger mammal species from across African savannah grasslands and woodlands showing phylogeographic pattern, with some indication of their phylogenetic structure and possible divergence times, refugia in west W, east E, and south S, and genetic signals of colonization and population history. LP = Late Pleistocene, MP = Mid Pleistocene, EP = Early Pleistocene, → = colonization/expansion. MS = mismatch expansion. All studies used d-loop mtDNA; also elephant used cytb and microsats, impala cytb, warthog and dog microsats, and buffalo Y.

Species

Phylogenetic structure

Likely Refugia (fossil evidence *)

Genetic signals of range changes

Reference


Hartebeest

Alcelaphus buselaphus

3 step clades

W→S→E,

W, E subdiv, S,

*0.7 My>

S→, E→,

some shallow clades

Arctander et al [83]

Topi

Damaliscus lunatus

3 clades

S→E (+ S)

(W), E, S,

*0.7 My>

S→, 2 clades, MS

E→, shallow clade, MS

Arctander et al [83]

Wildebeest

Connochaetes taurinus

2 clades, S→E,

S structured

E, S,

*1.5 My>

S→E, MS in E

LP

Arctander et al [83]

Kob (& Puku)

Kobus kobus sl

3 clades,

W→E + S

W, E, S

* EP>

W↔E several times,

lineage mixing, MP LP

Birungi & Arctander [108]

Greater Kudu

Tragelaphus strepsiceros

3 clades,

E, SW→S→E

E, S,

SW isolate

*widespread

S→E LP

shallow clades

diversity S>E

Nersting & Arctander [84]

Impala

Aepyceros melampus

2 clades,

SW, S→E

(E), S

SW isolate

*widespread

S→E LP

network cluster E

diversity S>E

Nersting & Arctander [84]

Wild dog

Lycaon pictus

2 shallow clades,

E, S,

few haplotypes

(W), E, S

W→E&S?, 340 ky>

each clade 70 ky>

mobile – mixing

Girman et al [89]

Buffalo

Syncerus caffer

2 shallow clusters

W→E+S

S nested in E

W, E, S,

* LP

W→E <180 ky

E→S twice <130 ky

MS LP

Van Hooft et al [85]

Elephant

Loxodonta africana

3–5 clades

W→E+S→W

W, E, S,

*EP

*LP→

W→S&E, EP

W→S&E, MP

E→W, LP

Nyakaana et al [109]

Eggert et al [88]

Warthog

Phacochoerus africanus

3 distinct clades

W→S→E

W, E, S,

*0.78 My>

*0.4 My→

3 clades isolated MP by dry climate

contract/expand LP

Muwanika et al [87]


Hewitt Frontiers in Zoology 2004 1:4   doi:10.1186/1742-9994-1-4

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