Figure 1.

The three major Mediterranean refugial and differentiation centres of Southern Europe during the last ice-age (R1: Atlantic-Mediterranean, R2: Adriatic-Mediterranean, R3: Pontic-Mediterranean) and the geographic location of the five most important contact and hybridisation areas where different biota got into secondary contact during the postglacial range expansion processes (H1: Pyrenees, H2: Alps, H3: western Central Europe, H4: eastern Central Europe, H5: Central Scandinavia. (Based on Taberlet et al. [9] and Hewitt [5]).

Schmitt Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:11   doi:10.1186/1742-9994-4-11
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